Department of Microbiology

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Prof. (Mrs.) B. J. Akinyele
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COURSE SYNOPSIS

 

MCB 151 – Introductory Biotechnology I                                                                (1 Unit)

Definitions and importance of biotechnology. History of biotechnology with emphasis on traditional biotechnology and modern biotechnology. Current status of biotechnology in Nigeria and Global trend. Principles, composition and applications of traditional biotechnology.

 

MCB 152 – Introductory Biotechnology II                                                                (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: MCB 151

Modern Biotechnology: Principles, composition and applications in the past, present and future with emphasis on animal, plant, microorganism, environment, food and medicine. Impact of biotechnology on human beings and their environment with special consideration on legal, social and ethical aspects of biotechnology.

 

MCB 201 – General Microbiology 1                                                                                     (3 Units)

Historical aspect and scope of microbiology. Characteristics of microorganisms. Types of microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae, chylamydia, protozoa, algae etc. Naming and classification of microorganisms. Growth and reproduction of microorganisms; Phases of growth, direct and indirect methods of measuring microbial growth. Logarithmic representation of microbial populations with emphasis on generation time. Control of microorganisms by physical and chemical methods with emphasis on sterilization and disinfection. Economic importance of microorganisms.

 

MCB 202 – General Microbiology II                                                                                    (3 Units)

Pre-requisite MCB 201

Biochemical reactions of microorganisms. Isolation, characterization and identification of microbes. Microbial taxonomy with emphasis on systematic classification. Applied areas of microbiology- Microbes and human diseases (Normal microbioata, infectious diseases, emerging infectious disease); Microbes and human welfare (recycling of vital elements, sewage treatment, Bioremediation, microbial insecticides, etc.). Microorganisms and the environment. Bacterial cell structure and function, genetic system of bacteria; Bacteriophages of plasmids; Microbial growth and metabolism; Energy and nutrient harvesting; Metabolic diversity among microorganism (photoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs; Introduction to viruses and immunology.

 

MCB 204 – Microbiological Techniques                                                                               (2 Units)

Pre-requisite MCB 201

Microscope; preparation of microscope slides; culture media preparation, methods for studying microorganisms; culturing and isolation methods, characterization and identification of microorganisms; Serotyping; Molecular identification of microorganisms. Colorimetry; Chromatography, Centrifugation, Conductorimetry; Experimental design and data interpretation; Preparation of reports.

 

MCB 301 – Bacteriology                                                                                                       (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201, 202)

Concepts and historical perspectives of Bacteriology; Gross morphology of bacterial cells; Structure of bacteria, Relationship between size and metabolism of bacteria, Nutrition in bacteria; Bacterial growth; Bacterial classification; Pathogenic bacteria and diseases; Virulence, spectrum and symptoms of infections, treatments and controls.  Koch’s postulate; Methods of isolation of bacterial pathogens; Bacterial classification with emphasis on (proteobacteria, non-proteobacteria: Gram –ve bacteria (Cyanobacteria); Planctomycetes, bacteriodes, fusobacteria, Sphingobacteria, the Gram  +ve bacteria; Low G + C Gram +ve bacteria; High G + C Gram +ve bacteria; Domain Archaea. Special techniques used in bacterial identification.

 

 

 

MCB 302 – General Virology                                                                                                (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201, 202)

Historical background and development of virology. Structure and composition of viruses; Classification, cultivation, isolation, purification and identification of viruses. Mechanisms of viral replication and infection. Plant and animal viruses Chemotherapy of viral diseases. Antiviral agents such as interferons and bacteriophages; Viruses and Cancer (RNA/DNA Onogenic viruses; Latent/Persistent viral infections. Modern techniques in virology; electromicroscopy, serology, electrophoresis, genomic detection; PCR, RF-PCR etc.

MCB 303 – Microbial Genetics                                                                                             (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201, 202, BIO 201)

Survey of the current status of microbial genetics (Bacteria, Fungi, viruses and protozoa) including discussion on methods and findings in the area of mutagenesis and induction. Isolation and biochemical characterization of mutants. Adaptation, Transformation, Transduction, Conversion and Conjugation. Experiments with virulent phages, temperate phages and Iysogenic bacteria, fungi and other lower eukaryotic organisms; General and specialized methods and techniques in microbial genetics; Gene expression and regulation. Roles of population fermentation, isolation; Conservation biology, bioinformatics i.e. the organization, storage, retrieval and analysis of biological data; Molecular application to other area.

 

MCB 304 – Environmental Microbiology                                                                             (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201)

Overview of microorganisms in the environment. Microbiology of waste disposal; Microorganisms and organisms important in sewage systems and waste waters.  Ecology of microorganisms in polluted water, air and soil. Self-purification of water; purification of water. Diseases transmitted through water; microbiological examination of water; Biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand; treatment of sewage water and municipal water. Introduction to air and space microbiology.

 

MCB 305 – Molecular Biology                                                                                              (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201)

Biogenesis, molecular structures and properties of molecular microtubules; mitochondria, chloroplast, membranes (nuclear and cytoplasmic), cell walls and other cellular structures. Membrane- membrane interactions. Biogenetics: different forms of energy existing in microorganisms; activation energy, catalysis and microbial enzymes as biocatalysts. Oxidation–reduction reactions in metabolism; Catalysis carriers. Introduction and application of thermodynamics to chemical reactions in microbial systems. Introduction to the molecular aspects of modern biology with emphasis on structures, functions and metabolism of DNA, proteins and enzymes. Introduction to genetic-engineering; Molecular control of development.  Molecular bases of human diseases.

 

MCB 306 – Mycology                                                                                                            (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201)

Structure, physiology, life cycle and classification of fungi; Fungi of economic importance; Growth and nutrition in fungi; Laboratory methods in Mycology; Pathology and immunology of superficial systemic mycoses and actinomycoses; Introduction to fungal genetics; Fungi and human affairs.

 

MCB 307 – Pathogenic Microbiology                                                                                   (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201, 202)

Principles of infection, etiology, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanisms, clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, prophylactic and therapeutic procedures, control and prevention of selected infections; viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal diseases of man, especially those prevalent in Africa. Diagnosis and tracking infectious diseases especially those prevalent in Africa; Person to person microbial transmitted diseases (Air-borne, direct contact and sexually transmitted infections); Vector-borne and soil-borne, food-borne and water-borne microbial diseases.

 

 

 

 

MCB 308 – Microbial Physiology and Metabolism                                                               (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201)

A revision of cell structures and functions of various microorganisms; Aspects of microbial physiology; Growth and death of microorganisms; Nutrient and nutrition. Classification of microorganisms based on nutrition. Nutrition: types of nutrition in relation to their metabolism: Metabolism of food substances (Carbohydrate, protein, fat, etc.). Energy flow in microbial metabolism: Substrate–level phosphorylation and Electron–transport phosphorylation.

 

MCB 312 – General Parasitology                                                                                         (3 Units)

Definition, advantages and disadvantages of parasitism. Types of parasites. Nature of parasitism; Host specificity and susceptibility; Epidemiology and life cycle of some common tropical parasites; Laboratory methods in Parasitology. Molecular basis of malarial pathology; Antimalarial drug resistance; Function and metabolism of trehalose in nematode worms; Reserve genetics of the model nematode C. elegans; Identification of novel antiparastic reagents.

 

MCB 401 – Industrial Microbiology                                                                         (4 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201)

Nature of industrial microbiology, Microorganisms of industrial importance; Aspects of the biology of moulds, yeasts, bacteria, actinomycetes and viruses of importance in various fermentation. Culture techniques and maintenance of selected cultures.  Mutation, strain selection and development, Hybridization; Media formulation and economics; Optimization of fermentation media on laboratory scale, Perimeter design operation; Antifoams; Aspects of biochemical engineering; Patents and patents law; Production of mammalian products by engineered microorganisms: Interferon, Insulin, Serum, Albumin, etc.

 

MCB 402 – Site Supervisor/Visiting University Staff Assessment                                    (4 Units)

Programme appraisal and accomplishment/Programme design and evaluation (FUTA Form A).

 

MCB 403 – Pharmaceutical Microbiology                                                                            (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Historical perspective of pharmaceutical microbiology; Different types of chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics, Chemistry and synthesis of antimicrobial agents.  Mode of action and assay for antimicrobial agents; Concept of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance.  Quality control of pharmaceutical products. Phenol coefficient.

 

MCB 404 – Institution-Based Supervisor’s Assessment                                                        (4 Units)

Account of activities of students as reported in the Log-book and evidence of attestation by Institution-Based Supervisors, Site Supervisor/Visiting FUTA Staff and ITF Zonal Offices remarks.

 

MCB 405 – Analytical Microbiology and Quality Control                                                   (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201)

Microorganisms as reagents in quantitative analysis. Selection of microorganisms for assay (antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, etc) responses of microorganisms used in assays; Obtaining and measuring the response of microorganisms used in assays.  Preparation of assay samples; methods of assay; Interpretations of results; Aspect of quality assurance and control in relation to industrial settings; Plants and equipment sanitation; Microbiological standards and specifications.

 

MCB 406 – SIWES Seminar Presentation and Report               (4 Units)

Oral presentation of SIWES report and technical written report. In general, the SIWES program shall be undertaken in medical public health and industrial establishments. A talk on experience during industrial attachment will be presented orally and in written form.

 

MCB 407 – Immunology and Immunochemistry                                                      (4 Units)

(Pre-requisite BIO 201, BCH 201)

Basic concept of immunology; antigens, antigenic determinants; innate resistance and cellular response; Structure and classification of immunoglobulins and antibodies.  Antigen and antibody interactions; Hypersensitivity; Immunoprophylaxis and serotherapy; auto immune diseases and immuno deficiency diseases. The practical will include laboratory exercise in modern techniques in immunology and immunochemistry.

 

 

 

MCB 409 – Food Microbiology                                                                                 (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

The occurrence and interactions of microorganisms with food.  Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth.  Methods of detecting the presence of microbes in foods.  Milk, meat and water microbiology.  Effects of microbial growth on food-fermentation, spoilage and food-borne diseases; food sanitation and microbiological food quality control; Biological hazards in food other than food poisoning bacteria. Food-borne viruses, Mycotoxins, Cestodes, Nematoda, Trematodes, Ciguatea poisoning, other poisonous fishes etc.; Microbial indicators of food sanitary quality (Coliform bacteria, Enterococci, etc.).

 

MCB 411 – Aquatic Microbiology                                                                             (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Nature of aquatic environment; Microbiology of water supply; microbial flora of surface and ground waters; water treatment; water supply and public health.  Conventional and advanced water treatment in hot climates and the use of water in agricultural irrigation, fish culture, industry and for municipal purposes; Sewage and sewage disposal in hot climates; Microbial aspect of water management; Eutrophication and bioremediation; Evolution, ecology and diversity of the marine environment; Origin of life in the sea and the evolutionary patterns suggested by the marine fossil beds; Major marine environment such as coral reefs, the deep sea floor, hydrothermal vents, the open ocean and the rotated zones; Diversity of plants and animals in each environment and the adaptations they have to vastly different conditions.

 

MCB 501 – Research Methodology                                                                                       (2 Units)

Experimental design in various areas of microbiology including food, medical, environmental and industrial microbiology. Preparation of research proposal and methodology. Data collection, analysis and interpretation with statistical packages including class demonstration. Preparation and presentation of visual results.

 

MCB 502 – Food Processing                                                                                      (3 Units)

Principles and practice of food processing; Techniques of processing and preservation of Nigerian foods with regard to their physiochemical properties; Canning containers; Outline of canning operations; Principal spoilage microorganisms in canned foods; Use of radiation in food preservation; Insect contamination as spoilage organisms; Laboratory examination of canned foods; Method of detecting contaminants in foods.

 

MCB 503 – Petroleum Microbiology                                                                         (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Morphology and biostratography of major groups of microfossil.  Biological origin and accumulation of petroleum and sedimentary basis.  Microbial aspects of genesis/petroleum.  Microbial indicators in oil prospecting. Tertiary recovery of oil by means of microorgansisms.  Microbial degradation of petroleum products and use of microorganisms in oil clean-up operations. Oil spillage, Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria; metallomonas bacteria that cause rusting of oil pipes; Role of microorganisms in corrosion of oil field equipment.

 

MCB 504 – Microbial Ecology                                                                                              (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Microbes and Ecological theory. Physiological, morphological and genetic adaptation of microorganisms to their environment. Microbial interactions.  Microorganisms in ecosystems.  Importance of microbes in the ecosystem. Temporal and spatial aspects of microorganisms in the environment. Microbial bioconversions; the use of advanced molecular techniques to study ecology. Ecological and evolutionary factors that influence the genetic structure of population of bacteria, fungi, plants and animals.

 

MCB 505 – Principles of Epidemiology and Public Health                                       (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Nature of epidemiological investigations. Techniques for studying epidemiological parameters. Spectrum of infections; Herd’s immunity and latency of infections; Multifactorial systems in epidemics; Zoonoses, Antigenic drifts; Biological products for recommended immunization schedules; International control of infectious diseases; statistical application to epidemiology.

 

 

 

MCB 506 – Principles of Host-Parasite Interactions                                                            (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Origin and concept of parasitism. Defence mechanisms of the host against pathogens. Physiology and biochemistry of plant and animal pathogens as related to the production of toxins, enzymes, antibiotics and proteins.  Mechanisms of variation in pathogens and nature of disease resistance in living organisms. Aspects of biological control. Principles of cross protection and cross infection.

 

MCB 507 – Plant Pathology                                                                                                  (3 units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Principles and concepts in plant pathology; some diseases of plants, especially those prevalent in Nigeria. Disease that may be covered includes those of both agricultural and natural importance e.g. potato late blight, barley scab, flax rust. Overview of the disease cycles, life cycles and infection cycles of pathogens. The geographical distribution of the pathogens; their isolation, identification, morphology, life cycles, source of inoculums, transmission and the effects on the host, etiology, cultural characteristics, and clinical manifestations of specific bacteria; viral and fungal pathogens of animals and plants; control of plant disease. 

 

MCB 508 – Nutraceuticals                                                                                                     (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

What are nutraceuticals? Economic importance of nutraceuticals. Some African foods with nutraceutical properties; edible macrofungi as sources of nutraceutical. Development of nutraceutical foods using biotechnology. Differences between nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Challenges faced by nutraceutical companies.

 

MCB 509 – Introduction to Fermentation Technology                                                         (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 201)

Definition and basic concepts of fermentation; Fermentation equipment (fermentors and bioreactors) and their uses. Microbial growth and fermentation processes. Alcoholic  and acid fermentation leading to the  production of bread, beer, wine, cheese, butter, yoghurt, ‘ogiri’, soy-iru, ‘fufu’, ‘lafun’, ‘garri’, etc. Microbial oxidative transformation of substrate during the production of vinegar. Antibiotics, baker’s, food and feed yeasts, vitamins and enzymes petrochemicals as fermentation products.

 

MCB 510 – Seminar                                                                                                               (2 Units)

Students are to participate in Departmental Seminar throughout the session.  The objective of this course is to give students some experience in preparing, reading, and literature search, preparing materials and presenting original research papers and to be familiar with current researches in microbiology.  Topics to be presented shall be different from the student’s project topic as approved by the project supervisor.

 

MCB 512 – Soil Microbiology                                                                                               (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite MCB 201)

Characteristics of Soil environment; Microbial fauna of soil; Microbial activities in soil, Nitrogen cycle, Carbon cycle; Mineral transformation by microorganisms; Ecological relationship among the soil pathogens; Effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms; Biodegradation and biofuel generation. Effect of physical properties of soil on soil microorganisms.

 

 

 

MCB 515 – Applied Parasitology                                                                                          (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – MCB 312)

Relevance of parasitic infections to society. Biology of some parasites of man and domestic animals in the tropics.  These include classification, distribution, incidence, morphology, natural history, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis, therapeutic, prophylactic measures and drug resistance. Emphasis should be laid on in-depth study of the pathogenicity of parasitic infections. Immunology of parasitic infections and the role of vectors in the transmission of parasitic infection. 

 

 

MCB 599 – Final Year Student’s Project                                                                              (6 Units)

A research project involving an investigation on selected microbiological problems; the students will undertake research project in a current area of microbiology under the direction of a member of staff.  The project is to be written in the form of a scientific report or paper, which will be orally examined by a panel of examiners headed by an external examiner.