IDOWU Timothy Oluwadare (Publications)
Publisher Nigerian Institution Of Surveyors, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title A GIS Approach To Crime Mapping And Management In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Victoria Island, Lagos
Publication Authors Fajemirokun, F. A., Adewale, O. S., Idowu, T. O., Oyewusi, A. M., Maiyegun, B. A.
Year Published 2009
Abstract

The level of development in any community is dependent, to a great extent, on the state of security in such an area. Over the years, the rate of crime in Nigeria has been on the increase and such crimes are being carried out with more perfection and sophistication. Due to lack of adequate modern technology and sufficient manpower, the Nigeria security agents have not been able to effectively contend with the rise in crime. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a modern technology for effective crime mapping and management. It has many applications and promotes collaborations across a wide variety of disciplines. GIS-based crime analysis, which is expected to be a necessary tool in combating crime, is not being used in crime management by Nigeria security agencies, especially the Nigeria Police. Since crime zones can be geographically located, a GIS can be used for spatial analysis of the relevant data to yield a visual appreciation of the patterns of crime in any nation. This paper discusses the application of GIS in the mapping and management of crimes in Nigeria using Victoria Island in Lagos as a case study. 


Publisher School Of Environmental Technology, ATBU, Bauchi
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title An Efficient Framework To Sustainable Management Of Refuse Collection And Evacuation In A Developing City
Publication Authors M. A. Shuaibu, A. A. Musa and T. O. Idowu
Year Published 2016
Abstract

The study developed a framework for sustainable management of refuse collection and evacuation in Bauchi city through spatial modeling. Coordinates of dump sites and sample households from the study area were obtained by Global Positioning System (GPS) while road network was obtained by digitizing satellite image of the area and both were used in this research. Thus, digital map of dump sites, sampled households and roads about the area were produced. Using the Network Analyst Toolof ArcGIS 10.2 functionalities for service areas, closest facilities and best routes, a model was then developed to encourage efficient and sustainable refuse collection and evacuation in the area. The model developed has 22 dump sites, 15 closest facilities and 3 truck routes. The service areas around each dump site are in three buffer zones covering distance of 200m, 350m and 500m respectively while the longest and shortest distances of 1499.46m and 156m in the closest facilities for the households were confirmed. Also, three trucks with truck 3 having the longest distance was discovered while truck 1 has the least distance for refuse evacuation in the area. These were discovered based on the service areas, closest facility and best routes and hence the model will improve the general situation of refuse disposal in the area. Moreover, it will specifically ensure efficiency and sustainability in the management of refuse collection and evacuation of the area. Therefore, spatial modeling through NAT looks more appropriate as panacea for inefficient and unsustainable management of refuse collection and evacuation of a developing Bauchi metropolis. Thus, the model is recommended to be used as an efficient framework for sustainable management of refuse collection and evacuation in similar developing cities.      


Publisher Department Of Planning, Research And Statistics, National Board For Technical Education Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Transformation Of Coordinates From NTM System To UTM System – A Numerical Approach
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 1996
Abstract

In this paper, numerical technique, as a new approach to coordinate transformation, is employed to transform coordinates from the Nigerian Transverse Mercator (NTM) system to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system. The data used for the transformation are the simulated NTM coordinates of points chosen in the west belt of NTM projection system and zone 31 of UTM projection system. The suitability of this numerical approach is tested by comparing its results with those obtained by applying the existing analytical technique of Edoga (1979) to the same data. Results show that the numerical approach not only satisfactorily transform the coordinates fron NTM to UTM but also that it is more economical.  


Publisher Department Of Planning, Research And Statistics, National Board For Technical Education Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Traverse Adjustment By Least Squares Methods Of Condition Equations And Observation Equations: A Comparison
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 1996
Abstract

The fundamental principles and equations involved in least squares method using both the condition equations and the observation equations for traverse configuration are reviewed. The traverse configurations considered for the adjustment are closed traverses and the computations are based on rectangular coordinate system. The results obtained show that both methods are suitable for adjusting traverse networks. However, the method of condition equations is more economical of computer storage and time than the method of observation equations. It also adjusts the observations/measurements better but unlike the method of observation equations, it does not directly compute the adjusted parameters. 


Publisher School Of Science And Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Surveying And Environmental Monitoring
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Ono, M. N.
Year Published 1999
Abstract

This paper dwells on the importance of surveying on major environmental phenomena such as flood and erosion that require monitoring and controlling. It also focuses on some major human activities such as boundary dispute, deforestation, population census etc which if not properly planned, implemented and maintained may cause serious degradation of the environment and hence huge economic loss and hardship. It concludes that the role of surveying for the good environment is vital.


Publisher Federal University Of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title An Apprisal Of Surveying And Mapping In Nigeria Digital Environment
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Musa, A. A.
Year Published 2000
Abstract

This paper focuses on surveying and mapping in digital environment as practised in Nigeria. The paper discuses practice of surveying and mapping in Nigeria during pre-digital (analogue) period and the recent digital period. Various factors militating against the smooth shift from analogue to digital surveying are also analysed. It is opined that digital surveying and mapping will be more advantageous in Nigeria as more accurate information needed for better planning and development will be obtained. It finally recommends that for a successful and hitch free transition from analogue to digital surveying in Nigeria, more Nigerian surveyors should seek political offices for good policy initiative, monitoring and implementation of the new digital technology.


Publisher Department Of Technology Education, Federal University Of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Analysis Of Landuse Changes And Water Stages For Flood Prediction Along The Benue River Valley: The Case Study Of Adamawa State
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Musa, A. A.
Year Published 2002
Abstract

This paper attempts prediction of flood along the river benue with Adamawa State as the study area. Using satellite images of the study area for 1980 and 1995, changes along the benue valley are detected. Using the detected changes as premise, an attempt is made at explaining changes in the behavioural pattern of the river. Water level and rainfall data for river benue and its tributries for fifteen years are collated. From the collated data, regression equations are formed for two places, Jimeta bridge and Numan along the river benue. It was discovered that increase in flood plain agriculture along the benue valley is the likely cause of increased incidences of flooding. It was also discovered that flooding along the river benue obeys a cycle of three years.  


Publisher Department Of Technology Education, Federal University Of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Integration Of Global Positioning System And Geographical Information System For Land Management In Adamawa State
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Tumba, A. G.
Year Published 2002
Abstract

This paper focuses on the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) for planning and land management in Adamawa State. The concept of GPS and GIS technologies are discussed. The current trend of land applications for suitable planning and land management in the state is also discussed. It is concluded that with good commitment to judicious acquisition and implementation of GPS and GIS technologies in the state, better land use planning and management can be achieved. The paper finally recommends that Government of the state should acquire GPS and GIS equipment and train her personnel in the field of these digital technologies for more accurate handling of state geographical data leading to better planning and land management in Adamawa state.


Publisher School Of Environmental Sciences, Federal University Of Technology, Yola
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Prediction Of Gravity Anomalies For Geophysical Exploration
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2006
Abstract

Interpretation of gravity anomalies (determined on the earths surface) reveals information on mineral resources beneath the earth. The density of gravity stations (where gravity anomalies are determined) is critical to the successful interpretation of these anomalies. Where the density of the available gravity anomalies is not enough, for a particular purpose of geophysical exploration, more gravity stations can be established within the surveyed area and the gravity anomalies observed for these stastions. In some cases, where observations of gravity anomalies are not possible due probably to inaccessibility of the newly chosen gravity stations, the required gravity anomalies for such stations can be estimated (predicted). Currently, classical least squares technique is used to accomplish such task. However, the technique does not produce optimum results because its formulation assumes that the observed gravity anomalies, used for the prediction, are error free, whereas, all observed quantities are affected by random errors. Therefore, in this study, an attempt is made to carry out prediction of gravity anomalies for geophysical exploration using least squares collocation technique. This is considered to be a better alternative because its formulation takes the presence of random errors of observations in the observed quantities into consideration and makes provision for filtering out these errors while predicting the signals of interest at the required number of stations.


Publisher The Managing Editor, International Research And Development Journal
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Prospects Of Air Borne Gravimetry In Mineral Exploration In Nigeria
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O., Fajemirokun, F. A., Ezeigbo, C. U.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

Airborne gravimetry is a technique used in modern geophysical exploration for detecting mineral resources. The achievable accuracy by this method is better than 1mGal/km. This has been made possible by the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technique in the determination of position and velocity of aircraft used to fly the measuring instrument (gravimeter) for gravity values. The airborne gravimeter can sense gravity anomalies of the order of 2mGal, which makes the method ideal for oil and gas exploration. Recent studies have shown that airborne gravimeter is a good alternative to the more expensive seismic survey for mineral exploration. Yet, seismic method is still preferred to gravimetric method in mineral exploration in Nigeria. This is due, probably, to the limited awareness of the potential of airborne gravity survey in mineral exploration. This paper examines the prospects and challenges of airborne gravimetry in mineral exploration in Nigeria. It also compares and contrasts this technique with classical ground based gravimeytric technique.


Publisher Department Of Geology, University Of Calabar
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title The Impact Of Digital Technology Revolution On Surveying Curriculum Review In Nigeria
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O., Fajemirokun, F. A.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

Digital technology such as computer technology, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) has been having a tremendous impact on the field of surveying. This development has positively affected the scope, methods, speed of data acquisition, data management and the rate of delivery of the results (map and other map products) of data processing. For instance, surveyors were hitherto engaged in the act of analogue collection, processing, storage and retrieval of data and data products. Nowadays, the use of digital technology for the same tasks has gained more importance. This is because digital technology produces more accurate results and is more economical than the analogue method. In order to incorporate the challenges brought about by the advent of the digital technology, some survey training institutions/departments have modified or completely changed thier names. Therefore, it is logical to observe that what used to be accepted as surveying curriculum in these institutions/deoartments has become inadequate. This has made the review of surveying curriculum a necessity in order to meet the demands of the current advancements in digital technology. This paper tries to address the impact of revolution brought by digital technology on surveying education. Also, it focuses on the need to review the current surveying curriculum to meet the technological advancement. Finally, it raises the need for a uniform curriculum for all surveying departments in Universities and a different uniform surveying curriculum for all surveying departmrnts in Polytechnics and Colleges of Technology.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Publisher Faculty Of Environmental Sciences, University Of Jos, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title On The Statistical Distribution Of Global Positioning System (GPS) Data
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

In surveying, statistical distribution of the observed quantities is not generally required to routinely apply least squares procedure to compute the estimates for the parameters of interest (Tiberius and Boree, 2000). However, for the interpretation of the results and for the statement on the quality of the observed quantities (e. g. GPS measured quantities) and parameters of interest (e. g. final coordinates of points), the statistical distribution of thier estimates must be known to follow normal distribution. In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate whether or not the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured quantities are normally distributed. The data used are the repeated GPS measured heights of a point at the Federal University of Technology, Yola. The investigation is carried out using both the graphical approach and numerical goodness-of-fit test. It is concluded that normal distribution turns out to be a reasonable fit for the GPS measured quantities.


Publisher School Of Environmental Sciences, Federal University Of Technology, Yola
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title A Comparison Of Direct And Indirect Analytical Methods Of Computing Residual Gravity Anomalies For Mineral Exploration
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

The first step in the analysis of gravity anomalies for mineral exploration is the extraction of residual gravity anomalies from the observed gravity anomalies. This can be achieved by graphical or analytical methods. Generally, direct and indirect analytical methods are considered better than graphical method. Telford et al (1990)and Reynolds (1998) have shown that the two analytical methods are suitable for the determination of residual gravity anomaies. However, thier studies did not include the comparison of the methods to determine which one of the two analytical methods is more suitable. In this study, direct and indirect analytical methods are utilized to compute residual gravity anomalies using rectangular coordinate system. The results confirm that both methods are suitable for the computation of residual gravity anomalies with indirect analytical method proving to be the better option for the computation of residual gravity anomalies.


Publisher Department Of Geology, University Of Calabar
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Determination Of Location And Quantity Of Underground Mineral Resources
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

Geophysical exploration is a reliable technique for detecting underground mineral resources. Its methods include natural-source method (such as gravity method) and artificial-source method (like seismic method). Various works on these methods, carried out by Keary and Brooks (1988), Senti (1988), Gumert (1992), Robin (1995) and Kearsley et al (1998) have shown that the gravity method is a good alternative to the more expensive seismic method. Yet, in Nigeria for instance, seismic method is widey used instead of the gravity method for mineral exploration. This is due probably to the inverse problem in the gravity method which has defiled satisfactory solution. This inherent problem is that of determining the most probable location and quantity of the underground mineral resources. This study attempts to determine the parameters (XYZ) which indicate the location and the parameter (M) which gives the quanity of the underground mineral resources using the concept of Newtons law of gravitation and Fourier analysis. It was observed that the parameters were found to be precise and satisfactory, hence the solution of the inverse problem in the gravity method of geophyscal exploration was achieved at five percent level of significance.


Publisher Nigeria Association Of Geodesy, Lagos, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Prospective Areas Of Mineral Accumulation In Adamawa State Of Nigeria
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

Geological study of rock formation in Adamawa State of Nigeria has suggested the availability of industrial, metalliferous, energy resources and strategic minerals in the state (Opeloye and Dio, 1999). However, to date, the stake holders in mineral exploration in Nigeria have not made attempt to carry out mineral exploration in the state. This might not be unconnected with the little or no geophysical study of the state to confirm ot otherwise the result of the geological study. This study uses the gravimetric technique (one of the techniques used in modern geophysical exploration) to investigate the availability of mineral deposits in Adamawa State. This is achieved by extracting the residual gravity anomalies from the gravity anomalies obtained for the gravity stations in the state. The non-zero values of computed residual gravity anomalies may indicate existence of underground mineral resources in a given area (Abdelrahman et al, 1985 and Idowu, 2005). Also, the coordinates of the gravity stations and the residual gravity anomalies are utilized to produce the residual gravity anomaly map for the state in order to determine the prospective areas (if any) of mineral deposits in the state. The results obtained seem to confirm the claim of the geological study that mineral resources may be available in Adamawa State. Finally, recommendations are made based on the outcome of the study.


Publisher Faculty Of Environmental Sciences, University Of Jos, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Suggested Approach To Observation Equations Method Of Least Squares Adjustment For Survey Network
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

Simultaneous, phase, sequential and combined phase/sequential approaches to the observation equations method of least squares adjustment are applied, using Trilateration network as a case study. The data, i. e. distances, azimuth and coordinates of control points used for the adjustment, as abstracted from Ayeni (1981), were assumed to be uncorrelated but of unequal precision. All computations are carried out on pentium mmx computer using computer programs written in Fortran 77 language. These computations are based on rectangular coordinate system. It is concluded, from the analysis of the results obtained, that combined phase/sequential approach is the most accurate while the phase approach is the most economical approach to the solution of observation equations of least squares for survey network adjustment.


Publisher Faculty Of Built Environment, University Of The West Of England, UK
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Determination Of Optimum Residual Gravity Anomalies For Mineral Exploration: A Least Squares Collocation Approach
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O., Nwilo, P. C., Fajemirokun, F. A., Ezeigbo, C. U.
Year Published 2008
Abstract

Analysis of gravity anomalies, measured on the earths surface can reveal information on sub-surface structure of the earth. The first step in this analysis is to extract residual gravity anomalies (needed for mineral exploration) from the observed gravity anomalies. Currently, a classical least squares technique is used to achieve this aim. However, this technique does not produce optimum results because it assumes that the observed gravity anomalies used for the computations of residual gravity anomalies are error free, whereas, all observed quantities are affected by random errors. In this study, an attempt was made to extract the residual gravity anomalies from the observed gravity anomalies using a least squares collocation technique. The least squares collocation technique was considered to be a better alternative because its formulation takes the presence of ramdom errors of observations in the observed quantities into consideration and makes provision for filtering out the errors from the observed quantities while predicting the needed signals at the required number of points. 


Publisher Centre For Basic Space Science, Nigeria
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title A Comparison Of Methods Of Computing Geodetic Coordinates From Cartesian Coordinates
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O., Ayodele, E. G., Dodo, J. D.
Year Published 2009
Abstract

Computation of geodetic coordinates (Φ, λ, h) from cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z) is a task that is frequently encountered in the field of geodesy, especially in datum transformation, geodetic positioning, gravimetric technique, etc. Different methods such as iterative techniques, non-iterative algorithms and closed form algebraic methods are available for achieving this task. The results obtained from these methods have been found to be stable and efficient. However, it is yet to be known which of these methods will produce the optimum results under certain circumstances. Therefore, this study attempted to apply the various available methods, using the same dataset, to compute geodetic coordinates from cartesian coordinates. Also, the results obtained were used to compare the methods in order to determine the technique and procedure that produce the optimal results. Analyzing the results, it was observed that virtually all the methods can favourably be used to transform cartesian coordinates to geodetic coordinates. However, at a point where X-coordinate is zero, only Vermeille (2002) method is capable of handling the computation satisfactorily.  


Publisher Scholarlink Research Institute
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Regional Assessment Of The GPS Tropospheric Delay Models On The African GNSS Network
Publication Authors Dodo, J. D., Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2010
Abstract

Recently considerable interest has been generated in the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for meteorological application leading to what is now called GPS meteorology. A major source of error in the measurements, for GPS meteorology, is the propagation delay of the GPS signal caused by the two main layers of the atmosphere. These are the ionosphere and troposphere. The ionospheric effects can be mitigated by the use of double difference ionosphere-free linear combination. The tropospheric effect, on the other hand, are reduced to the barest minmum using the global tropospheric models, derived experimentally and based on the available radiosonde data. In order to determine a suitable tropospheric model for African GNSS network, an investigation on the reliability of the different standard tropospheric models is needed. Therefore, it is the objective of this paper to assess the reliability of the three standard tropospheric models for the reduction of tropospheric effect in GPS observations. The models used are the refined Saastamoinen model, the modified Hopfield model and Neil model. The results show that there are insignificant differences in the performance of the three models at significant level of 0.05. However, the refined Saastamoinen model seems to produce a better mitigation of the tropospheric effect with an average percentage of 33.6% while Neil and modified Hopfield models have 13.8% and 12.5% percentages respectively. The result further indicates that the refined Saastamoinen model has the lowest mean average Zenith Tropospheric Delay (STD) of 2.1m with RMS of 0.0051m. This suggests that the refined Saastamoinen model has better performance than Hopfield and Neil models.  


Publisher Scholarlink Research Institute
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title A Framework For The Implementation Of The Global Navigation Satellite System In Nigeria
Publication Authors Dodo, J. D., Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2011
Abstract

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is an extremely valuable tool across a broad range of applications. This creates opportunities for regional and international technological advances in the areas of positioning and location-based services, surveying and mapping, disaster management, navigation, food security and emergency response. GNSS technology provides opportunities for developing countries to take advantage of applications that improve the quality of life, social, economic progress and support priorities for sustainable development. Whereas, the developed countries have fully recognized and taken advantage of this technology, developing countries are yet to fully utilize the technology to improve their economic and social developments. Similarly, it seems there is no serious government policy towards the establishment of GNSS technology, in developing countries, such as Nigeria. Also, human resource development, public and private sentisitations for the effective utilization of GNSS technology have not been put in place. Therefore, it is the objective of this paper to highlight some of the challenges facing Nigeria towards the realization of GNSS technology. Also, the paper proposes a framework for the implementation of GNSS in Nigeria.  


Publisher School Of Environmental Sciences, Federal University Of Technology, Yola
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title A Proposal For The Extension And Institutional Framework Of European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) In The Implementation Of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) In Africa
Publication Authors Dodo, J. D., Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2011
Abstract

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a spaced-based radio positioning system that includes the use of one or more satellite constellations. It was designed for intended operations which include provision of 24-hour geo-spatial positions, velocity and time information to suitably equipped users anywhere on, or near the surface of the earth. The system is at present composed of two operational satellite systems namely: the American Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). It is expected to include the European Galileo Services in the nearest future. Several augmentation systems designed to provide greater efficiency and accuracy for GNSS users at different levels have been developed and are at various implementation stages. The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Services (EGNOS) is one of such augmentation systems. Several trials have been conducted in Africa by the European Space Agency (ESA), to ascertain the coverage and performance of EGNOS. The results showed that a satisfactory positional accuracy is achievable in Africa if the process involved is integrated with the European service area, thereby complying with Approach with Vertical Guidance-1 (APV-1). Therefore, this paper proposes EGNOS extension and institutional framework in the implementation of GNSS in Africa and also outlines the benefits to be derived from such implementation. The proposed extension architecture is expected to be an independent solution whereby the processing and uplink of navigation messages will be carried out in Africa with the institutional framework providing the guiding regulations. 


Publisher Scholarlink Research Institute
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Development Of Quality Assessment Tool For Geospatial Data Acquisition In Surveying And Geoinformatics
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Sambo, J
Year Published 2012
Abstract

Quality of geospatial data has become a major source of concern for users of Geographic Information System (GIS). This is not unconnected with the proliferation of geospatial data that abound in the industry as a result of development in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). GIS can be defined as a tool for integrating both spatial and non-spatial data from various sources for analysis and management. This tool, which has become a house-hold name in all facets of human endeavour, has little to offer in terms of determining quality of data acquired without the provisions of other external measures. In this study, a computer tool (software) was developed to determine the quality of geospatial data using horizontal coordinates of points from satellite image and large scale cadastral maps of a study area. The developed spatial data quality assessment tool is code-named GeoQAss. The procedure adopted involved the use of statistical models to determine the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the satellite image coordinates against coordinates of the same points obtained from large scale cadastral maps. Test of hypothesis was carried out using Chi-Square statistic at 95% confidence level to ascertain conformity of the variance of the satellite data with the variance obtained for large scale maps. The analysis of the results proved the efficacy of the developed tool in assessing the quality of geospatial data to determine whether or not they (geospatial data) are useful for further applications in GIS environment.


Publisher Centre For Promoting Ideas, USA
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Comparison Of Numerical Techniques For Coordinate Transformation: The Case Study Of Nigeria Transverse Mercator And Universal Transverse Mercator
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2012
Abstract

In this paper, numerical techniques were employed to transform coordinates from the Nigeria Transverse Mercator (NTM) system to Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) sysyem. The two numerical techniques used are  Newtons divided difference and cubic spline techniques. The data used are the simulated NTM coordinates of points in the West belt of NTM projection system which also fall in zone 31 of UTM projection system. All the computations were carried out on Pentium IV computer using computer program written in Visual Basic language. These computations were based on rectangular coordinate system. This is because both NTM and UTM are based on plane surveying system. Based on the results obtained and comparison of the two numerical techniques with the standard step-wise analytical technique, it can be inferred that the numerical techniques serve as effective tools for coordinates transformation from NTM system to UTM system. However, cubic spline technique proved to be more accurate and reliable but less economical of computing time and computer memory spaces than the Newtons divided difference technique.   


Publisher International Journal Of Science And Technology
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Sustainable Solutions To The Problems Of Inter Local Government Boundary Disputes In Adamawa State, Nigeria
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Chubado, M.
Year Published 2012
Abstract

In this paper, ways of minimizing the scourge of inter local government boundary disputes in Adamawa State of Nigeria are discussed. Snowball sampling technique was used for data collection and the data collected were the responses/information from the people (i. e. traditional rulers and aged individuals) interviewed. Snowball sampling technique is a technique whereby anybody interviewed is asked to suggest additional people to be interviewed. The outcome of the interview provided facts on the historical developments, evolution and emergence of the boundary disputes. These facts were analyzed making reference to the events of the recent years as established by available evidences which make competing histories more probable. Findings from the research revealed that boundary disputes might not be unconnected to the lack of accurate maps used for the definition of boundaries, use of only natural features to demarcate boundaries, factions wanting to maintain the past and present interests, increase in population of people competing for exploitation of resources and the fear of domination of minority by majority tribes. The study further revealed that the border communities are not granted full participation during boundary dispute resolution. Therefore, more proactive approaches for the definition of local government boundaries are suggested. Also, solutions to other problems which usually lead to boundary disputes in Adamawa State are recommended.  


Publisher Centre For Promoting Ideas, USA
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Prediction Of Orthometric Heights Of Points For Topographic Mapping
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Abubakar, T.
Year Published 2012
Abstract

Heights are determined based on a particular reference surface for the purpose of controlling vertical coordinates of points during mapping. These heights are usually presented in various countries as orthometric heights which has geoid as its reference surface. Orthometric height is the geometric distance from a point on the earths surface measured along the curved plumbline to the geoid. In practice, orthometric heights are determined by conventional precise levelling combined with gravity observations along the levelling routes. They have conceptual importance in surveying as they provide the needed heights for controlling other height measurements in surveying. However, its determination seems to be time consuming, laborious and less economical of project cost. Where the density of the available orthometric heights in a study area is not enough, more heights can be measured. In some cases, where observations are not possible, probably due to inaccessibility of the stations needed for measurement or logistic problems, the required orthometric heghts can be estimated (predicted). Therefore, this paper attempts the prediction of orthometric heights for unknown stations in a study area using least squares collocation technique. Data used for the study are the rectangular coordinates and orthometric heights of thirty known stations within the study area. Analyzing the results obtained, it was observed that the least squares collocation technique used for the prediction did not introduce significant distortion into the results obtained at 5% level of significance. Also, it was observed that the predicted heights are satisfactory. That is, the difference between the observed and the predicted orthometric heights of the same station was found to be within the tolerant error limit.        


Publisher TRANS STELLAR Journal Publication
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Numerical Investigation Into The Double Fourier Analysis For Determining The Quantity Of Underground Mineral Deposit
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O. and Abubakar, T.
Year Published 2013
Abstract

Geophysical exploration is a reliable technique for detecting underground mineral resources. Its methods include natural-source method such as gravimetric method and artificial-source method like seismic method. Previous studies have shown that the gravimetric method is a good alternative to the more expensive seismic method. Yet, seismic method is widely preferred in Nigeria and many other countries to the gravimetric method for mineral exploration. This is due, probably, to the inverse problem in the gravimetric method which has defied satisfactory solution. This inherent problem includes amongts others the determination of the most probable quantity of the underground mineral deposit. In this study, an attempt is made to carry out numerical determination of the estimated quantity of underground mineral deposit. Data used for the study are the rectangular coordinates and residual gravity anomalies of gravity stations obtained along some profile in Bauchi State of Nigeria. The data distributed in profile pattern was later resolved into square grids using Kriging method of interpolation. Thereafter, the estimated quantity of the underground mineral deposit was determined using the method of double Fourier analysis. It can be inferred, from the analysis of the results obtained, that the computed quantity of the mineral deposit is satisfactory. Therefore, it shows that the solution of the inverse problem in gravimetric technique has been satisfactorily attempted. Also, double Fourier analysis has been shown to serve as effective tool for the determination of the quantity of underground mineral deposit.  


Publisher TRANS STELLAR Journal Publication
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Viewshed Analysis Of MTN Telecommunication Network In Jimeta Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Publication Authors Edan, J. D., Idowu, T. O., and Zango, I. S.
Year Published 2013
Abstract

This paper discusses rectilinear wave propagation of radio wave utilized by Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Telecommunication network platform in Jimeta Metropolis. The paper is aimed at demonstrating the use of viewshed analysis in improving Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN) signal reception. The map covering the study area was scanned and saved into the computer. Global Position System (GPS) coordinates acquired from the field were used for geo-referencing and digitization and this was performed using AutoCAD Land Development and ArcGIS 9.2 version, which gave the digital map showing the location of the MTN telecommunication masts. The optimal sites from where signal have extensive reach and effect, and areas of maximum signal reach were determined as a precursor for the installation of the telecommunication masts in the area of study. It was revealed that GSM signal strength and speed are good and fast mainly around the masts, while other areas of considerable long distances have poor or no signal reception. The results also showed that viewpoints on high peaks produce better visibility and signal reception than on lowlands in the line of sight and viewshade analysis. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that telecommunication masts should be installed at locations of high peaks where the line of sight will not be obstructed.


Publisher BPrint Publisher, Lagos, Nigeria
Publication Type Books
Publication Title Determining Underground Mineral Resources - Location, Magnitude And Type - Using Gravimetric Technique
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2011
Abstract

Geophysical exploration is a reliable technique for detecting underground mineral resources. It is broadly divided into two methods: natural-source method such as gravimetric method and artificial-source method like seismic method. Various works on the two methods have shown that the gravimetric method is a good alternative to the more expensive seimic method for mineral exploration. Yet, seismic method is still widely preferred in some  countries. This is due, probably, to the inverse problem in the gravimetric method of geophysical exploration. The inverse problem is sub-divided into two as follows: 

(i)  Extracting the optimum residual gravity anomalies, which indicate the occurrence of underground mineral  

      deposit, from the observed gravity values.

(ii) Utilizing the optimum residual gravity anomalies for the determination of location, magnitude and type of  

       underground mineral resources.

This work is on the appropriate functional model and procedure for the determination of optimum residual gravity anomaly. Also, it tries to utilize the optimum residual gravity anomalies to determine the location of the centre of mass, magnitude and type of underground mineral resources.   


Publisher LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing
Publication Type Books
Publication Title Determination And Utilization Of Optimum Residual Gravity Anomalies
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2013
Abstract

Exploration for mineral resources, which are bountifully but irregularly distributed in the earth, has engaged the attention of man since the earliest time. It is the most important geophysical surveying activity in Nigeria today because the explored mineral resources are of great economic interest to the country. This research aims at solving the inverse problem in gravity method of geophysical exploration. That is, the determination of occurrence, location and quantity of mineral deposits in a given area using gravity surveying. The overall objective of the study is to develop appropriate functional model and procedure for the gravity method of geophysical exploration.  


Publisher TRANS STELLAR Journal Publication
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Determination Of Orthometric Heights From GPS And Levelling Data
Publication Authors Edan, J. D., Idowu, T. O., Abubakar, T. and Aliyu, M. R.
Year Published 2014
Abstract

One of the major tasks of geodesy is the determination of geoid. This task is getting more crucial due to the development of Global Positioning System (GPS). This is due to the fact that GPS provides ellipsoid heights instead of orthometric heights. To convert ellipsoidal heights into orthometric heights, precise geoid heights are required. Nowadays, the most effective universe technique used for the determination of orthometric heights is the GPS and levelling technique. This paper focuses on this technique and multiple regression analysis method was used to further determine the geoid undulation. ArcGIS 9.2 software was used for generating the grid map of the area using the corrected orthometric heights obtained by the regression method. The regression parameters ao, x1 and x2 were obtained as 1166.721268, -0.00085137265 and -0.00089422771399 respectively. From the analysis, the standard error of estimates Sx1 and Sx2 associated with x1 and x2 were obtained as 0.0001291688765 and 0.0001351270512 respectively. The coefficient of multiple determination R2 was found to be 0.992049442. The computed F-statistic was 5157.59101, while the value from F-distribution table was 3.97. Hence, the parameter estimators x1 and x2 are good estimates of the actual regression parameters x1 and x2.      


Publisher Surveying And Geoinformatics Department, MAUTECH, Yola
Publication Type Technical Papers
Publication Title Report On The Topographic Survey Of Proposed Site For The Construction Of Four New Departments And Central Laboratory At MAUTECH, Yola
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O., Abubakar, T. and Zango, I.
Year Published 2012
Abstract

The management of Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola has asked the Physical Planning Uint (PPU) of the University to produce the topographic map of a proposed site meant for new structural development in order to draw financial assistance from the Government. Based on this, PPU engaged the services of the authors  for a topographic survey of the proposed site for the construction of new department and central laboratory. The site is situated close to the new library complex and the school of engineering lecture theater of the University. Also, the area is bounded by a seasonal river at the northern part. The survey included perimeter, spot height, contour and detail surveys of the area.  


Publisher Surveying And Geoinformatics Department, MAUTECH, Yola
Publication Type Technical Papers
Publication Title Report On The GPS Survey For Madagali, Adamawa State Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) Against Malaria
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O., Edan, J. D. and Zango, I.
Year Published 2007
Abstract

As one of the measures to reduce malaria attack on the people to the barest minimum, the Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria had programmed IRS for the purpose of eliminating mosquitoes in Adamawa State. This led to the choice of Madagali Local Government Area (LGA) as a pilot project area. The authors were asked to carryout the surveying aspect of the project. The aim of the survey project was to produce oerimeter and detail survey plans of the selected three communities within Gulak, the local government headquater. The selected communities were Gar (K) community, Gadabady (B) community and Hashi (C) community. In each of the communities, only one hundred households were chosen for identification, observation, and mapping. K and B communities were to be used as practical spray sites while C community served as a control community.   


Publisher American Research Institute For Policy Development
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Estimation Of The Quantity Of Surface Runoff To Determine Appropriate Location And Size Of Drainage Structures In Jimeta Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Publication Authors Idowu, T. O., Edan, J. D. and Damuya, S. T.
Year Published 2013
Abstract

This study attempts to determine the appropriate locations and sizes of drainage structures that can handle surface runoff in all watersheds of the study area (i. e. Jimeta Metropolis) without endangering lives and properties. Surface runoff is the excess water that flows over the land after the soil is infiltrated as a result of heavy rainfall while a watershed is defined as the area of land that drains to a particular point. Among various methods of determining the quantity of surface runoff, rational method is considered for this study. This is because previous attempts have shown that the concept of rational method is simple and good for relatively small watersheds as those covered in this study. The data used are the rectangular coordinates of points and the rainfall data of the study area for the year 2011. The method includes the determination of the locations and volumes of the drainage structures. Time of Concentration (ToC), Rainfall Intencity (I), Runoff Coefficient (C) and hence the estimated quantities of the surface runoff. Analysing the results obtained, it was observed that the locations of the drainage structures are appropriate. However, the drainage structures of some watersheds are smaller than the required sizes thereby posing the risk of endangering lives and properties. That is, the existing volumes of the structures are smaller than the estimated volumes of the surface runoff. Therefore, it is recommended that the estimated quantity of surface runoff in a particular watershed should serve as a benchmark for the determination of appropriate location and size of drainage structure to be constructed for such watershed  


Publisher International Journal Of Environment, Ecology, Family And Urban Studies
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Viewshed Analysis Of MTN Telecommunication Network In Jimeta Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Publication Authors Edan, J. D., Idowu, T. O. and Zango, I. S.
Year Published 2013
Abstract

This paper discusses wave propagation of radio wave utilized by Global System for Mobile (GSM) Communication Telecommunication network platform in Jimeta Metropolis. The paper is aimed at demonstrating the use of viewshed analysis in improving Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN) signal reception. The map covering the study area was scanned and saved into the computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates acquired from the field were used for georeferencing and digitization was performed using AutoCAD Land Development and Arc GIS 9.2 version which gave the digital map showing the locations of the MTN telecommincation masts. The optimal sites from where signals have extensive reach and effect, and areas of maximum signal reach were determined as a precursor for the installation of the telecommunication masts in the area of study. It was revealed that GSM signals strength and speed are good and fast mainly around the masts while other areas of considerable long distances have poor or no signal reception. The results also showed that viewpoints on high peaks produce better visibility and signal reception than on lowlands in the line of sight and viewshed analysis. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that telecommunication masts should be installed at locations of high peaks where the line of sight will not be obstructed. 


Publisher International Journal Of Engineering Science Invention
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Spatial Database System And Visual Interface Creation For Bauchi Refuse Disposal And Sustainable Management Using Geospatial Technology Approach (GTA), Bauchi State, Nigeria
Publication Authors Shuaibu, A. M., Musa, A. A. and Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2015
Abstract

Among the major spatial challenges of refuse disposal in Bauchi metropolis are; locations of the dump sites, ownership and sustainable management. This research employed the use of geospatial technology approach for the determination of the dump sites using GPS and creation of spatial database system for the study area using ArcGIS 9.3. The study revealed that there are two hundred and ten refuse dumping sites in the Bauchi walled city among which twenty five are major dump sites while the rest are minor bins in the database system created. The system was integrated with a virtual interface developed using Virtual Basic 6.0 programming software as an enabling ground for coorperation between stakeholders to aid in its efficient and sustainable management. The study recommends the use of GTA for refuse spatial database creation and sustainable management. 


Publisher The Journal Of MacroTrends In Technology And Innovation
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Geospatial Technology Approach To Suitable Landfill Determination Based On Spatial Multi-criteria Evaluation For Bauchi Metropolis In Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Publication Authors Shuaibu, A. M., Musa, A. A. and Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2015
Abstract

Landfill refers to suitable end destination for refuse residues to be finally dumped. The major challenge has been the identification of method for the determination of suitable landfill. Also, is the multi-objective nature of the site identification spatial processes. Recently, researchers have indicated that the use of geospatial technology in Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) technique for site selection analysis looks more appropriate for the location of landfills. This study used the satellite image 2014 and Geographic Information System (GIS) technique of Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) to classify land cover/use that serve as basic land cover data of the study area. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS) 3.3 Academics were respectively used as hardware and software for data capture and analysis while the data manipulation was carried out using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) technique. All inputs criteria for the analysis were treated as constraints that participated based on Boolean Logic (BL). While working within the criteria tree of SMCE), constraints were normalized after the inputations of all the maps layers. Aggregation to obtain the composite index map was then carried out. The outcome revealed that three suitable landfill were successfully located to be utilized as standard landfills in Bauchi metropolis. Therefore, the study recommends the use of geospatial technology in SMCE to suitably locate the spatial positions of landfills in developing cities.


Publisher International Journal Of Science And Technology
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Determination Of Type Of Underground Mineral Deposit In Gongola Basin, Nigeria Using Gravimetric Technique
Publication Authors Abubakar, T and Idowu, T. O.
Year Published 2014
Abstract

Determination of type of underground mineral deposit is usually done by drilling several boreholes to extract the underground mineral in order to know the type. In this research, residual gravity anomalies were used in the determination of type of the underground minerals. Residual gravity anomalies measured along profile for 300 stations were used. The data was interpolated at grid points using the method of kriging which makes it possible for the application of a two dimensional Fourier analysis and Gauss theorem to determine the quantity and excess mass of the mineral deposit respectively. The density of the underground mineral deposit was subsequently computed using the computed excess mass and quantity of the underground mineral deposit. The density was used to identify the possible type of the mineral body buried in the area. The results obtained revealed that the possible mineral body buried underground responsible for the gravity anomalies has density of 0.85gcm-3 which suggest that petroleum is suspected to be deposited in that area. The residual gravity anomalies at the area of suspected mineral deposit used for the computation of excess mass and quantity of mineral deposit was analysed at five percent level of significance and found that the data represent the normal population, that is, the data used was derived from the one used for the investigation. The result of the type of mineral deposit at that area agrees with the result obtained by Shell Nigerian Exploration and Production Company (SNEPCO). The method used in this research is therefore recommended for investigation of type of mineral deposit in area where the gravity data is known. 


Publisher International Academy Of Science, Engineering And Technology
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title GIS Database Design And Implementation - The MAUTECH Experience
Publication Authors Musa, A. A., Idowu, T. O. and Zemba, A. A.
Year Published 2014
Abstract

The myriad of problems associated with storing and managing spatial data in MAUTECH had made it imperative to develop a Geographic Information System (GIS) database. The urge to split the database into two packages - one, a conventional database handling the attributes data and two, a GIS database handling the spatial data - was borne out of the fact that a databse was already in existence which stores the attribute data. However, the need to keep the DBMS simple in order to make it user friendly made the option of storing both attribute and spatial data in one single DBMS an attractive option. The design went through three stages - the conceptual, the logical and the physical design stages. The main features used to link the numerous other related tables were the building which were digitized from a satelite image as polygon features. Though most of the problems associated with analogue record keeping were eliminated, the objective of msking it user friendly was not achieved. The design successfully eliminated data redundancy. However, querying the database had new challenges for users that are unfamiliar with the GIS. The split arrangement whereby the spatial data is stored in a GIS and the attribute data is stored in a conventional database is considered a much better option.


Publisher Canadian Journal International
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Mapping, Spatial Distribution Pattern Of Gravity Stations And The Need For Local Earth Observing System (LEOS) In Nigeria
Publication Authors T. O. Idowu and G. E. Ajayi
Year Published 2017
Abstract

This paper attemps the mapping and determination of spatial distribution pattern of gravity stations in Nigeria. Also, it tries to create awareness on the need to localize the earth observing system in the country. Data used for the study are the gravity anomalies and space rectangular coordinates (XYZ) of six thousand one hundred and eighty eight (6,188) stations in Nigeria and analogue map of Nigeria. Based on the preliminary investigation, the data used were found to be valid, reliable and hence of satisfactory quality. The spatial distribution pattern of the gravity stations was determined using nearest neighbor statistical technique, the prediction of the gravity anomalies outside the observed stations was also achieved using least squares collocation technique while the digital mapping was carried out using ArcGIS 9.3 software. Analysing the results obtained, it was observed that the spatial distribution pattern of the available gravity stations is random at 5% level of significance. Also, the gravity stations were found to be inadequate for meaningful research on geoid determination and mineral exploration in major parts of Nigeria. Therefore, suggestions are made for the adequate provision of gravity stations through LEOS in order to enjoy beneficial gifts of nature associated with natural source (gravity) values in Nigeria.