Afolabi Olajide Joseph (Publications)
Publisher Academic Journals
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Distribution, Abundance And Diversity Of Mosquitoes In Akure, Ondo State ,Nigeria
Publication Authors Afolabi Olajide Joseph *, Simon-Oke Iyabo Adepeju and Osomo Bilikis Omosalewa
Year Published 2013
Abstract
The distribution, abundance and diversity of mosquitoes in Akure,were studied between April, 2012 and March, 2013. Twenty (20) locations randomly distributed across five geographical zones of the city were sampled using sweep nets, aspirators, dippers and pipettes. The habitats sampled include containers, stagnant pools, domestic run-offs and gutters. The larvae collected were preserved in 70% ethanol and identified to species level using X40 dissecting microscope and morphological keys. 30 species distributed among 5 genera were identified during the study. The distribution and abundance of the 30 species of mosquitoes varied significantly (p<0.05). Culex andersoni was found to be most abundant in the study area with 23.1% abundance followed by Culex fatigans (21.9%) while Toxorhynchites brevipalpis was the least abundant (0.05%). Combination of factors such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, relative humidity, conductivity and anthropogenic related factors contributed
to the increasing abundance of mosquitoes in the study area. The occurrence of
Aedes, Anopheles and Culex is suggestive of the prevalence of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and filariasis in the area. Therefore, intensive vector control programmes and public enlightenment especially on human activities that encourage mosquito breeding are recommended.

Publisher Scientific Publisher
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Prevalence Of Onchocerciasis And Efficacy Of Ivermectin: A Brief Study From Idogun, Nigeria.
Publication Authors Afolabi Olajide Joseph
Year Published 2016
Abstract
Onchocerciasis is an eye and skin infection caused by a filarial worm:Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by haematophagous female Simulium blackfly. The present study was carried out in Idogun; an endemic community in Ose local government area, Ondo State, to investigate the prevalence of onchocerciasis and the efficiency of Ivermectin drug. Simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting 384 respondents of both genders not below 10 years of age that attended the community health centre and a structured questionnaire was used to obtain epidemiological information. Skin snips aseptically obtained from the respondents were prepared for microscopy using sedimentation method and subsequently viewed under X10 objective lens of light microscope.The results showed that the prevalence of the disease was significantly different among the age groups and genders (P <0.05) with highest prevalence of the disease (43.6%) observed in age group of 51-60 years while the lowest prevalence (0%) was observed in age group 81-90years. Meanwhile, highest average microfilarial load (12.2mf/mg) was observed in age group 71-80years while the lowest average microfilarial load (0mf/mg) was observed in age group 81-90years. Similarly, the prevalence of infection (M=29.4%, F=26.5%) and average microfilarial load of the parasite (M=8.2mf/mg, F=7.6mf/mg) were significantly higher in male than the female gender. The drug (ivermectin) was observed to be effective in the community but the efficiency varied significantly among the age groups (P<0.05). The highest efficiency of the drug (87.5%) was observed in age group 21-30years while the lowest efficiency (16.5%) was observed in age group 71-80years. The results revealed that the community
is still endemic for river blindness; hence there is need for continuous distribution of the drug in the community in order to completely eradicate the disease.

Publisher Sciencedomain International
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Knowledge, Attitude And Perception Of Onchocerciasis And Ivermectin Treatment In Idogun Community, Ondo State, Nigeria
Publication Authors Olajide J. Afolabi * , Christopher E. Okaka , Iyabo Adepeju Simon-Oke and Mobolanle O. Oniya
Year Published 2016
Abstract
Introduction:Onchocerciasis is a communicable parasitic disease caused by a nematode;Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by female Simulium blackfly. The disease is common among poor rural dwellers where it causes various degrees of
skin and eye infections.
Objectives:To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and perception of onchocerciasis and its treatment with ivermectin.
Methods:The study was undertaken in Idogun, an endemic community in Ose local government area, Ondo State. Structured questionnaire was administered to 384 respondents during personal interview and focus group discussion to obtain useful epidemiological information, while skin snip test was employed to determine the prevalence of the disease among the 384 respondents not below 10 years of age that were randomly selected for the study. Chi-square at 5% significance level was used to establish the significance of various parameters tested in the study.
Results:The results revealed that 235 (61.2%) were ignorant of the disease while 149 (38.8%) respondents had adequate knowledge of the cause and mode of transmission of the disease.Meanwhile, skin snip test showed that the disease occurred more among the ignorant (22.9%) than the knowledgeable (5.2%). Ignorance of disease was further reflected in the response of the respondents to the cause and mode of infection. Most ignorant individuals in the community believed the disease can be contracted through sexual intercourse (4.6%), stepping on charms (3.9%), inherited from infected parents (6.3%), ageing (13.3%), lack of personal hygiene (7%) and
too much farming (40.4%). Whereas, 15.6% of the study population had no idea of the cause and mode of the disease. The study further revealed that 24.7% of the respondents showed various side effects to the drug such as itching, rashes swelling wrinkles, dizziness and weakness. The side effects of the drug were observed to be more among the infected individuals (20.8%) than the uninfected individuals (3.9%).
Conclusion:The study suggests that there is need for intensive public enlightment in the community to properly educate the community about the cause and mode of the disease.

Publisher BioPublisher
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Toxicity And Fumigant Effect Of Powder And Oil Extracts Of Cleisthopholis Patens (Benth) A G Ainst Larvae And Adults Anopheles Mosquito
Publication Authors Akinneye J.O. ,Afolabi,O.J.
Year Published 2014
Abstract
The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem-bark of Cleisthopholis patens (Benth) were tested against the larvae and adults of Anopheles gambiae at varying concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for powder, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% for oil extract and 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for aqueous extract). The ethanolic oil extract of C. patens at 1-5% concentrations had
significant effect on larvae and adult of An. gambiae with percentage mortality range of 83-100% within 90mins of exposure periods.The aqueous extract of C. patens was relatively ineffective against the larvae of An. gambiae at all levels of concentrations while the fumigant effect of the powder was slightly effective against adult An. gambiae which achieved 23.30 - 36.70% mortality of the insect. The results obtained showed significant difference when the value of ethanolic extract, the aqueous extract and the powder form were compared (p < 0.05). This shows that the plant oil (ethanolic extract) of C. patens is highly toxic at all concentrations (1-5%) to the
larvae and adults of An. gambiae which resulted in the mortality effects.

Publisher BioPublisher
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title The Prevalence Of Fascioliasis Among Slaughtered Cattle In Akure, Nigeria
Publication Authors Olajide Joseph Afolabi , Fayokemi Christianah Olususi
Year Published 2016
Abstract
This study was undertaken in Akure, Ondo State to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis among slaughtered cattle in Akure metropolis. The faecal samples of the slaughtered cattle were examined for the eggs and adult of the Fasciola spp using flotation method and viewed with X40 magnification of binocular microscope. Examination of the adult flukes from the infected liver was done by making length wise incisions of the ventral side of the liver in order to cut open the bile duct. Of the 905 male and female slaughtered cattle examined for fascioliasis infection in the study area, a total prevalence of 7.07% (n=64) was observed.
Prevalence of the disease between genders revealed that the female cattle were more susceptible (8.53%) to the disease than the male cattle (5.73%). F. gigantica was identified to be the most predominant species in the study area with prevalence of 84.38% compare to F. hepatica (1.56%). This study indicated that prevalence of fascioliasis is low in the study area but there is still need for adequate environmental and veterinary health enlightenment programmes about this infection to completely eradicate the disease and further improve the quality of meat supply to the consumers.

Publisher Sciencedomain International
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Prevalence Of ABO Blood Groups And Its Relationship With Malaria Parasitemia Among Students Of Federal University Of Technology, Akure, Ondo State
Publication Authors I. A. Simon-Ok e * , O. J. Afolabi and A. I. Itansanmi
Year Published 2016
Abstract
There are different reports on the increasing evidence about the relationship between
Plasmodium falciparum malaria and ABO blood group, but the range is yet to be understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of malaria parasite and its relationship with ABO blood and rhesus grouping among newly admitted students of FUTA. Two millilitres (2 ml) of venous blood was collected by venipuncture using 5 ml hypodermic needles and syringes from 312 symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria students. Blood samples were immediately dispensed into Ethylene Diamine Tetra-Acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulated containers and mixed appropriately. ABO blood typing using monoclonal Antisera A, B and D was carried out on samples. The 312 samples analysed were made up of 126 (40.4%) rhesus positive and 10(3.21%) rhesus negative. In decreasing order, 60.0%, 45.3%,39.1% and 37.3% students occurred in blood group AB, O, A and B respectively. On the whole, 136(43.6%) of total samples processed, were positive for malaria parasitaemia out of which Plasmodium falciparum account for 82(60.3%). 97(46.2%) and 39(38.2%) of total male and female subjects were infected. Malaria parasitaemia seemed to be relatively high across all blood groups with groups O and AB subjects more susceptible to malaria infection. There was no significant difference in age group and sex (P>0.05) of the subjects while there was a significant difference in prevalence of malaria parasite and blood groups (P<0.05).

Publisher BioPublisher
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Efficacy Of Ocimum Grattissimum On Adult Anopheles Gambiae
Publication Authors Afolabi Olajide Joseph
Year Published 2016
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum oil and powder against adult Anopheles gambiae. The plant leaves were air-dried at room temperature (28±2oC) and relative humidity of 75±5% for 30 days. The air-dried plant part was pulverized into fine powder. 100g of the powder was dissolved in 95% ethanol and subsequently filtered. The oil was extracted from the filtrate using soxhlet extractor. The extracts were used as oil, fumigant and wax candle. Each weight and concentration was tested against 10 adult laboratory cultured mosquitoes. The results showed that O. gratissimum was effective in reducing the mosquito adults at all concentrations. The plant showed 100% mortality at 2g and 5g of the powder, 5-25ml of the oil and 0.5g/mol of the wax candle formulation at 30minutes of exposure. The results of the research showed that the plant extract was effective against adult Anopheles mosquitoes; therefore the botanical pesticides can be used in vector control programmes.

Publisher Elsevier
Publication Type Journal
Publication Title Prevalence And Distribution Of Malaria, Pfcrt And Pfmdr 1 Genes In Patients Attending FUT Health Centre, Akure, Nigeria
Publication Authors I.A. Simon-Oke, E.T. Obimakinde, O.J. Afolabi
Year Published 2017
Abstract
This research evaluated the distribution of malaria,Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistant (Pfmdr1) mutant genes among patients attending FUTA Health Centre. The research was carried out between December 2015 and February 2016. One hundred and forty (140) patients coming for malaria test were examined out of which 74(52.86%) were males and 66(47.14%) were females. Malaria test was done by thick blood film microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique.PCR technique was used to detect Pfcrt and Pfmdr1mutant genes of P. falciparum. Information about sex, age, status and date of collection of each patient were collected. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used for analysis. Out of 140 blood samples that were tested, 100 (71%) were positive for malaria infection. The percentage distribution of m
alaria infection among male and female patients was 54(72.97%) and 46(69.70%) respectively with no significant difference (P= 0.668).The prevalence of Pfcrt (95%) and Pfmdr1 (45%) showed significant difference (P= 0.001). The research revealed high prevalence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 mutant genes of P. falciparum among patients which may be as a result of treatment of mal
aria with Chloroquine and other medication which the parasite have formed resistance against. It is therefore important to administer other malaria drugs apart from the drugs the parasite have formed resistance against.